Chandelier has been electrified. Drop is 25" without the chimneys. A ten-light chandelier in hand-hammered brass with glass chimneys and cranberry glass globes, England, circa 1860-1880. Manufacturer's name is stamped on the gas cocks. "Made in England Duplex." This chandelier was originally a Duplex double-burner Paraffin lamp which employed two parallel wicks. Paraffin lamps were introduced in the 1860s, superceding lamps burning colza oil. Paraffin was clean since it did not clog up the works and more importantly, only needed the capillary action of a good cotton wick to deliver it to the burner. Although paraffin had been extracted from oil shale in Scotland in the 1840s, it was not until oil started gushing out of the ground in Tennessee and Texas in 1859 that it became cheap and plentiful enough for widespread commercial use. Chandelier has been electrified. The next 20 years saw countless improvements and variations in the design of oil lamps. In England, one of the most influential innovations was the duplex burner which used two parallel wicks, a system still employed in modern paraffin lamps. Creator Unknown (Manufacturer) Period: Victorian Place of Origin: England Date of Manufacture: 1870 Period: Late 19th Century Materials and Techniques: Hammered Blown Glass, Brass Condition: Good

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